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Materials Science



Bringing polyurethane nanocoatings to market

特蕾莎·亨德里克,Technical Research Analyst at Cerion Advanced Materials - 14/11/2018

Theresa Hendrick,Cerion Advanced Materials的技术研究分析师,explains how Cerion is incorporating nanoparticles for high-performance coatings.
Coatings provide two primary functions – decoration and protection – and they are becoming increasingly advanced.消费者和制造商正在推动对高级涂料的需求,这些涂料能提供各种元素的保护,including corrosion,scratches,fingerprints,bacteria,光线和水分。This demand has led to efforts to create high-performing coatings that are integral to virtually any product on the market today.
Incorporating nanomaterials into coatings results in superior characteristics that typically cannot be achieved in traditional coatings.纳米颗粒至少有一个尺寸小于100纳米,and their large surface area allows for enhanced reactivity,transparency and exceptional properties even when incorporated at low concentrations.工业界正在创造更复杂的纳米涂层,以更好地解决影响许多工业的基本问题,such as antimicrobial protection,耐腐蚀性,易于清洗,阻燃性,抗刮擦和耐磨性,强度和紫外线防护。也有很大的兴趣创造多功能纳米涂层具有一个以上的性能属性或效益。
Polyurethane (PU) coatings,which are are an organic polymer-based coating made up of repeating urethane units,were first developed and commercialized in the early-mid 1900s to provide a higher level of versatility at a time when protective coatings were much more limited and not multifunctional.Today,PU coatings are applied to a variety of substrates (as metals,plastics,concrete).PU coatings can be formulated as solvent-borne,水性的,high solids or powder polyurethane coatings.它们提供有效的耐化学性,防腐,抗刮擦和耐磨性,抗紫外线和耐候性,他们在许多行业中都有应用,including automotive,construction,电子学,furniture,marine,textile and transportation.
When inorganic nanoparticles are incorporated into coatings,有一个有益的协同效应。无机-有机杂化材料具有这两种成分的特性。通过调整有机材料的种类,可以控制和调整混合材料的性能。无机纳米粒子的类型和大小,and ratios.通过在涂层中加入纳米技术,聚氨酯涂料制造商正在增加价值,并使涂料行业发生革命。
产生巨大冲击的小颗粒
一系列纳米颗粒在与涂层结合时提供了积极和令人兴奋的性能。一些研究结果足以使某些纳米涂层商业化,such as those containing silicon dioxide,银titanium dioxide,zinc oxide or zirconium dioxide.它们为基板提供了广泛的性能增强,包括自清洁,antimicrobial,UV protecting,scratch resistance,corrosion resistance and conductive properties.
二氧化硅(SiO ) nanomaterials enhance coatings with a range of beneficial properties,including scratch,abrasion and corrosion resistance,自我和容易清洁,antireflective and anti-fog.For easy to clean and anti-fogging,亲水性SiO 纳米颗粒赋予基底功能特性,使其具有高性能和透明性,因此不会影响基底的外观。在创造耐刮擦和耐磨的光学涂层时,SiO nanoparticles result in coatings that are anti-reflective due to their low refractive index.SiO 添加到聚合物中的纳米颗粒已经商业化,以制造亲水和防污的纳米涂层,以及耐候性增强、热性能和机械性能改善的聚氨酯纳米涂层。
纳米银(Ag)具有独特的导电和抗菌性能,可用于医院涂层。食品加工厂和纺织品。Silver ions,as nanoparticles and salts,are effective against a range of bacteria,including strains that are antibiotic resistant.含有纳米银的涂料可以杀死与身体气味相关的细菌,防止感染的传播。In the biomedical space,Ag is used for coating polymers used in catheters.也用于船舶防污涂料。and in coatings for wood preservation.在电子学中,Ag nanowires have superb electrical conductivity for transparent conductive coatings and flexible electronics.Nanosilver coatings are commercialized for use in public spaces,在家居表面,and textiles for antimicrobial protection,as well as for touchscreen applications.
二氧化钛 ) nanoparticles are known for their photocatalytic properties,可用于涂料的自洁,空气净化,抗菌保护和紫外线吸收。当暴露在紫外线下时,二氧化钛 被激活,与水反应形成活性氧,分解有机物。Nano TiO can be found in paints to remove volatile organic compounds from ambient air,for self-cleaning and for UV absorption.TiO nanocoatings have also proven to be an effective and long-lasting antibacterial agent.它的低毒性和低成本导致了二氧化钛的产生。 polymer nanocoatings being commercialized for a range of substrates.
氧化锌(ZnO)纳米粒子用于紫外线防护,corrosion resistant and antibacterial coatings.随着涂料制造商逐渐远离有机紫外线吸收剂,they're turning to ZnO for its superb absorption of UVA and UVB rays.The design of ZnO nanomaterials for UV-resistance,however,需要精心而精确的设计。Larger particles are more effective at UV protection,但它们必须足够小以透明。纳米氧化锌对革兰氏阳性菌和革兰氏阴性菌的抗菌性能也引起了人们的兴趣。This lends itself to use in healthcare where there is an industry-wide need for more effective antibacterial coatings to help prevent the spread of infections.
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO ) nanoparticles are showing promise in the optical coatings market.It is a well-known high refractive index (RI) nanoparticle which can increase the RI of optical coating formulations applied to displays and other optical surfaces.They are incorporated into polymers to produce high RI coatings that outperform traditional polymers used for optical coatings that have low RIs and are not ideal for certain optical applications.
The art of nanomaterial engineering
A hurdle to incorporating advanced materials into coatings is poor dispersibility.Despite high availability of nanopowders,集料的存在和缺乏可裁剪性使其与涂料结合,可加工性,成功的表现具有挑战性。The solution lies in finding polymer-nanoparticle dispersions that can be utilized in the current coating processes,新一代涂料。
Cerion Figure 1.png
Incompatibility between inorganic nanoparticles and coating formulations causes particle agglomeration,which negatively impacts the transparency and end properties of coatings.Skillful nanomaterial engineers can surface functionalize or cap the surface of nanoparticles for preferable particle-formulation interactions and compatibility.为了使这项技术发挥其全部潜力,纳米材料供应商必须创造高度统一的,cost-effective nanoparticles that are sustainable and optimized so they can be incorporated into the coating formulation.
Cerion Advanced Materials通过合成和表面功能化一系列无机纳米粒子以及开发一种可以提高其产量的系统,克服了这些挑战。While fulfilling requests from prominent coating manufacturers,, 铈离子已用一系列封端剂将在水性和非水性溶剂中合成的各种无机纳米颗粒封端,and then shifted them into a variety of organic systems.With three facilities dedicated to the research,无机先进纳米材料的开发与制造,the company implements a ‘Design for Manufacture' methodology.Along with a pilot-scale line,full production line,and a 150 metric ton per year capacity,this allows for seamless transition from the lab bench to cost-effective manufacturing in the shortest possible timeframe.
Cerion Figure 2.png
铈离子works extensively in the PU nanocoating space and has synthesized and dispersed nanoparticles of SiO 氧化锌转化为聚氨酯。该公司的化学家制备了120纳米二氧化硅。 nanoparticles by the general Stober method,and 6 nm ZnO nanoparticles by a precipitation method (Figure 1).两个纳米颗粒样品均分散在乙醇中,浓度为10 wt%。
General resin formulations were prepared by heating a high viscosity urethane monomer to 50°C,在另一低粘度聚氨酯单体中与光引发剂一起搅拌15分钟。将10 wt%纳米颗粒溶液与制备的树脂按体积1:1分散,并将其混合以产生透明和无色的分散体(图2)。

Thin films of the nanoparticle loaded polyurethanes were prepared on glass slides (Figure 3) by spin coating at 1000 rpm,heating to 100°C for 5 min,紫外线照射1小时。Once cured,both films were transparent and colourless,with the SiO loaded resin demonstrating a slightly higher haze due to the larger particle size.
Cerion Figure 3.png
Meeting the needs of the polyurethane coating industry
Polyurethane manufactures are focused on developing functional coatings with enhanced value and performance through the addition of nanoparticles.The push to improve PU coatings has led to the search for nanomaterials that can be incorporated to add innovative properties,but the key to market penetration is the ability to appropriately scale nanomaterials to accommodate industry needs while not impacting desirable PU coating properties.聚氨酯涂层制造商与特殊纳米材料供应商之间的合作将有助于聚氨酯涂层的开发,其中包括为与涂层配方相容性而优化设计的纳米颗粒。processing methods and applications.这些性能和性能增强的不同类型纳米颗粒的影响将成为商业化和工业破坏的催化剂。
作者:
Theresa Hendrick,Cerion Advanced Materials的技术研究分析师,一条花路,罗切斯特NY 14610,USA
T: +1 585 271 5630
www.cerionadvancedmaterials.com